Flipped classroom: implementation, teaching approaches, and challenges in music education

Περακάκη Ελισσάβετ, Ζεπάτου Χρυσάνθη, Κότσιρα Ευαγγελία, Γεώργιος Τσίτας, Ανδρέου Έλενα


Session Η ανεστραμμένη τάξη στο μάθημα της μουσικής ( Friday, 15-Apr-22 19:15:00 EEST )

The Flipped Classroom approach has been widely used to enrich teaching practices with digital tools at all levels of education, underlining the enhancing students' learning implications and experiences. In the field of music education, flipped classroom research refers to, among others, the teaching of the cello (Akbel, 2018), music theory (Doi, 2016), and ensembles (Gilbert, 2016).

According to this blended learning teaching approach, a video or any other digital material is posted on a platform (Learning Management System) before the lesson. Students study the material during their time (pre–school), and they come to the classroom cognitively prepared or pose questions about the course's theoretical background. They have achieved the early stages of the Bloom taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) during this stage, i.e., memorization, comprehension, and application. 

In the lesson (in-school stage), questions are answered, and clarifications are given. Consequently, most of the teaching time connects theory and practice. Thus, students achieve higher Bloom taxonomy levels, such as application, analysis, and creation.  

In this symposium, ways of implementing the inverted classroom in Primary and Secondary Education will be proposed. The teaching approaches answer the following questions: a) which musical skills can be cultivated?  b) How and to what extent does this teaching approach focus on the higher levels of Bloom's classification? c) how do the students respond to this way of teaching? d) what difficulties are faced during the application of the flipped classroom?

Specifically, flipped classroom implementations will focus on the following actions: 

 A) in the 6th grade (public school), using a) videos of songs that act as a kick-start (introduction of the music listening examples) approaching their musical elements in the classroom and b) video tutorial for drill and rhythmic accompaniment practice song with body percussion,

B) in the 5th and 6th grade (private school), using a teacher's creation of an e-book with text, images, and audiovisual material entitled: "My Theodorakis" as a springboard for experiential musical actions,

C) in the 2nd grade of Junior High School, according to the school textbook topics about the traditional music of China, Japan, and Latin America. 

Applying the flipped classroom teaching model demonstrates that the students are enthusiastically involved in the musical activities. On the other hand, they do not show enthusiasm and substantial commitment to observing the digital material (pre-school). However, it has "added value" as a didactic approach, as the in-class time focuses on practice. Simultaneously, it provides the possibility of self-learning. In this framework, the music educator can enable greater depth and creativity in the classroom, enhance the interest and initiative of students, and promote the participation and involvement of students in the learning process. In addition, the teacher's personality and didactic style play a fundamental role in inspiring his/her students encouraging them to participate actively.

  • Η μουσική διδασκαλία-μάθηση σε τυπικά, μη τυπικά και άτυπα περιβάλλοντα
Keywords blended learning, flipped classroom, Bloom’s taxonomy, experiential learning, μεταγνώση
Language Ελληνική
Author(s) CV

Elissavet Perakaki belongs to the specialised educational staff of the Department of Musical Studies in Music Education. She holds a PhD (2009) and has a degree from the above University. The title of her dissertation is “The development of Critical Thinking through music lessons in secondary school: the teaching for thinking method”. She has taught music in public primary and secondary schools and conservatories (theory of western music and guitar lessons) since 1998. She cooperates with the Greek Institute of Education and the Music Library of Greece “Lilian Voudouri”. She has also published papers in conferences and journals in the field of Music Education. She is the author (Fagotto: 2008, 2009) and co-author (Fagotto: 2018 and Ellinoekdotiki, September 2020) of four books in Greek. She is a member of the International Society for Music Education (ISME). She currently serves as commissioner of ISME’s Music in the Schools & Teacher Education Commission (MISTEC) for 2020-2026. 

Chrisanthi Zepatou is a music Teacher. Piano Diploma - Piano Degree /Atheneum Conservatoire - Athens Conservatoire. PhD Candidate, P.T. Department of Pre-School Education, University of Ioannina,  Postgraduate Program of Interdepartmental Program  Faculty of Music Studies & Faculty of Communication and Mass Media Studies, University of Athens, Political Science and History Diploma of Panteion University,  Co-author of: The current school textbook “Music Grade 5” (2007),  New Greek National Music Curriculum [2014],  Teacher’s Guide for the National Curriculum for Music (2014), Conference publications:  2nd, 4th & 5th GAPMET, Art and Education IEP (2015), 8th GSME, Journal Music in the First Grade (2008), In-service teacher trainer: Cross –Thematic Curriculum Framework (CTCF)/ New Textbooks (2004), New School (2012), Pilot application consultant: New Greek National Music Curriculum (2012), Evaluator: “Music Grade 3- Grade 4”/ New School (2015), Mentor for Practical Training of students from the Department of Music Studies of NKUA (2008-today).   

Lilly Kotsira has a degree in Piano, Harmony and Counterpoint.  She studied Art History at Oslo University. Since 1991 she has been working as a music teacher in Athens College elementary school. She is a certified IB, PYP teacher. She is a founding member of the Hellenic Union for Musical Education.  She was a member of the organizing committee of the 30th ISME World Conference on Music Education, 2012. She took part in the E.E.C. educational program Socrates-Comenius “Meeting my new borders”, Harvard Graduate School of Education program “Project Zero”  and Macedonia University research programs. In 2009 she won the “Restis Award” in the competition for educational programs organized by Lilian Voudouri Musical Library. She participated in the Musical Interaction Relying on Reflection(MIROR) project, co-funded by the European Community, ICT, Seventh Framework Programme (2017). She has organized and carried out workshops on Musical technology for elementary school students.

Dr Georgios Tsitas is a secondary- school-music- and theology teacher. He is also an adjunct faculty in the School of Education of the University of Nicosia. His research interests focus on the Ethics and ethics of educational evaluation.

Helena Andreou is a musicologist, working as a senior education executive for music education in public education. She is a PhD candidate in the Department of Communication and Media Studies researching close interpersonal relationships, music preferences and practices. She holds a BA in Musicology and a MA in Music, Culture and Communication both from the University of Athens and a Med in Modeling Design and Development of Educational Units from the University of the Aegean. Helena is a certified second level ICT teacher trainer and has extensive teaching experience in primary and secondary schools and model-experimental schools. As a specialist scientist-expert of IEP, she has designed and developed Music Secondary school and High School curricula.